Living к livelihood могут употребляться с неопределенным артик лем (to earn a living /а livelihood/), support — с определенным (the sole support of the family), а все осталь ные синонимы употребляются обычно без артикля: to provide smb. with subsistence /with sustenance, wiih maintenance, with bread and butter/, wiih five dollars and keep.
[Q] Для исе.х синонимов, за исключе нием bread tt keep, характерны сочетания с прилагательными, обозначающими степень, особенно п е б о л ь ш у ю: lie makes a decent living /livelihood/ он прия ччиа зарабатывает, Ms, ty.w.ks had failed to provide them with even a modest livelihood его книги ire обеспечили им даже самого скромного существования; lie got a scanty sustenance он мало зара батывал; they lived on small /011 reduced/ subsistence omt жили на скудные ерсд- стиа; the job provided a mere maintenance работа давала только средства к суще ствованию; his earnings are lhe sole support of his family его заработок — единственный источник дохода семьи. Для living, bread и livelihood характер ны устойчив ы е сочетания с глаго лами to earn и to make: he made his living /his bread, his livelihood/ as a writer он зарабатывал себе на жизнь литературным трудом; to earn a living /а livelihood/, he became a salesman чтобы заработать на жизнь он стал аген том по сбыту. Для синонимов living и livelihood характерны устойчи вые словосочетания типа to do smth. for a living /for a livelihood/: he told her 0Г his plan to write tor a living /Гога livelihood/ on рассказал ей о своем плане зарабатывать на жизнь литературным трудом.
Living почти не употребляется вне ука занных устойчивых словосочетаний.
[И] Не asked me what I did to make a living and I told him that 1 was starting in as a writer (E. Hemingway. ‘A Move able Feast'). 1 ..was earning a good living — more Hum three hundred pounds a month Friedman, ‘The Hunter'). It was not for a fortnight that he discovered exactly what J did for a living (C. P. S/tvw, ‘Time of Hope'). At the cafe I met a man who ate fire for a living.. (E. Hemingway, ‘A Moveable [■'east'). Harris was disagreeable after supper— I think it must have been the stew that had upset him; he is not used to high living.. (J. K. Jerome, ‘Three Men in a Boat'). For a bare living he would have to sell — why, three dozen big and four dozen small balloons.. (J. Galsworthy, ‘The White Monkey').
He liked lhe flock of his busy pennies, in Lhe shop, as if Ihey had been divine* bees bringing him sustenance from the infinite (D. H. Lawrence, 'The Lost Girl'). There is, of course, the problem of sustenance (E. Hemingway. \4 Move able Feast'). Eating once in twenty* -four hours seemed sufficient sustenance for him (E. Bronte. ‘Withering Heights’).
Many officers arbitrarily deprived of the.ii Mtrvmi'.'ians aud their bread.. (Th. Macaulay, ‘History of England’ —
О. E. D.).
He was gradually making it possible to earn a livelihood by his art (D. H. Lawrence, ‘Sons and Loirs’), Have I committed the unforgivable sin that I must suffer ail my life long, be deprived of my live lib 00a., (Gr. Greene. ‘A Gun for Sale'). ..she now honed to secure some means of livelihood through Cow per wood (Th. Dreiser, 'The Stole’). Nor did he know that the ‘Transcontinen tal’ was the sole livelihood of the editor and the business mat lager., (J. London. ‘Martin Eden'). I’d ask yon, sir, to re frain from adopting that condescending attitude towards the commodities that provide me with my livelihood (S. Bar stow, Ask Me Tomorrow').
They are forced to live at subsistence level ('Morning Star', Dec.. 23, 1971). She, together with any one else who would lend him anything, and his losses at cards ,, were his whole means of subsist ence (J. Galsworthy, 'in Chancery').
..Miss Frost had already ceased to draw any maintenance from James Hough ton (D. H. Lawrence. ‘The Lost GirP). Jane's getting out, and she's going to slap you for maintenance of the children (J. Wain, ‘Strike the Father Dead'). I-lis father .. had no desire to assume the burden of his maintenance or education (E. Bronte, ‘Wutherlng Heights').
I trust there is charity enough among the noble friends of my house, to make up some support for the orphan.. (W.Scotl, ‘Quentin Dumard’ — O.E.D.)
If I slay here I'd expect to work for my keep (N. Lewis, 'Every Man’s Brother'). She was a little better off since
I paid her ten shillings a week for my keep.. (С, P, S/lOiV, ‘Time of Hope’).